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YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL TERHADAP PIDANA INTERNASIONAL

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YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL – Menurut Rebecca Wales yuridiksi pada dasarnya menunjukkan tentang kompetensi suatu negara untuk mengatur orang termasuk kekayaan diri berdasarkan hukum nasional baik dalam bidang perdata maupun pidana.

Dalam lapangan hukum pidana internasional yang menjadi ruang lingkup yuridiksi adalah terkait dengan ruang atau tempat terjadinya perbuatan delik yang terdiri dari :

  • Yuridiksi Ekstra Teritorial di darat ;
  • Yuridiksi Ekstra Teritorial di laut dan;
  • Yuridiksi Ekstra Teritorial di udara.

YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL DI DARAT

Untuk yuridiksi ekstra teritorial di darat biasanya timbul karena adanya hubungan diplomatik antara 2 negara, oleh sebab itu sumber hukum pidana internasional yang mengatur tentang yuridiksi extra teritorial di darat selain bersumber dari perjanjian bilateral juga dapat mengacu pada Pasal 22 Konvensi Wina 1961 tentang hubungan diplomatik misalnya terkait perbuatan yang dilarang :

  • Gedung misi tidak dapat diganggu gugat (inviolable)
  • Adanya kewajiban khusus untuk mengambil semua langkah yang perlu untuk melindungi gedung misi terhadap penurunan atau kerusakan termasuk untuk mencegah setiap gangguan perdamaian misi atau pengrusakan martabatnya;
  • Perlengkapan dan barang-barang Gedung Misi misalnya alat transportasi kebal terhadap penyidikan pengambilalihan penangkapan serta eksekusi.

YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL LAUT

Untuk yuridiksi ekstra teritorial laut beberapa sumber hukum pidana internasional yang harus diperhatikan misalnya :

  • Konvensi PBB Hukum Laut Internasional tahun 1982 yang menetapkan batas laut wilayah atau laut teritorial nasional adalah 12 mil diukur dari garis pangkal pantai yang disesuaikan;
  • Hak lintas damai yang diatur pada Pasal 14 Konvensi Jenewa 1958 tentang pengaturan kegiatan pada laut wilayah dan zona sepadan yang mengandung Hak Lintas Damai. Adapun bentuk Hak Lintas Damai yakni melintasi tanpa memasuki laut pedalaman, melintas dari laut pedalaman menuju ke laut bebas dan atau membuang sauh dan berhenti karena keadaan tertentu.
  • Pengaturan limitatif hak atas laut lepas daiatas 12 Mil sekalipun dimiliki oleh negara manapun akan tetapi menurut sumber hukum kebiasaan internasional setiap kejahatan internasional yang terjadi di atas laut lepas maka yuridiksi sepenuhnya diserahkan pada bendera negara kapal
  • Bahkan adanya Hak bagi negara pantai untuk melakukan pengejaran seketika (Hot Pursuit) terhadap kapal yang melakukan pelanggaran atau diduga terjadi tindak pidana diatas kapal sesuai pasal 111 konvensi hukum laut 1982

YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL UDARA

Terdapat tiga sumber hukum pidana internasional yang mengatur kejahatan di atas pesawat terbang :

  • Konvensi Tokyo 1963 : mengatur kejahatan di atas pesawat terbang sipil yang sedang berada dalam lintasan laut lepas, dimana menurut pasal 3 yurikdis harus ditegakan oleh neegara tempat di mana pesawat terbang itu didaftarkan , melalui Pasal 4 disebutkan Negara yang bukan negara tempat pesawat terbang di daftarkan tidak mempunyai yuridiksi :
  • Konvensi Den Haag 1970 yang dikenal sebagai sumber hukum pidana internasional terhadap kegiatan pembajakan di atas pesawat terbang yqng terjadi disuatu negara , didalam konvensi ini negara peserta harus mengambil tindakan yuridis terhadap perbuatan pembajakan diatas pesawat berbendera negara lain;
  • Konvensi Montreal 1971 merupakan sumber hukum pidana internasional terhadap pidana sabotase yang dapat membahayakan pesawat terbang dalam penerbangan
YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL
YURIDIKSI EKSTRA TERITORIAL

John Ganesha Siahaan

Kelahiran Belinyu tertarik pada isue demokrasi, pembaharuan hukum dan pengawasan kebijakan publik. Aktif sebagai pekerja bantuan hukum dan Penggiat Ekonomi Kreatif pada Pengembangan Industti 4.O

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