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Perbedaan Pasal 2 dan 3 UU Tindak Pidana Korupsi

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Suatu perbuatan merupakan tindak pidana korupsi sudah dirumuskan melalui UU No 31 Tahun 1999 dan perubahannya melalui UU No 20 Tahun 2001 tentang Pemberantasan Korupsi.

Secara formil seorang JPU yang akan membangun dakwaan kepada pelaku tindak pidana korupsi diwajibkan untuk memahami rumusan delik yang telah diuraikan dengan jelas mulai dari pasal 2 sampai dengan pasal 24.

Setiap pasal didalam UU Pemberantasan TIndak Pidana Korupsi memiliki kriteria tersendiri, dirumuskan sebagai jeratan dan sanksi perbuatan yang menjadi modus operandi korupsi selama ini. Misalnya, pada Pasal 2 ayat (1) dengan Pasal 3 dalam UU Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi.

“Setiap orang yang secara melawan hukum melakukan perbuatan memperkaya diri sendiri atau orang lain atau suatu korporasi yang dapat merugikan keuangan negara atau perekonomian negara, dipidana penjara dengan penjara seumur hidup atau pidana penjara paling singkat 4 (empat) tahun dan paling lama 20 (dua puluh) tahun dan denda paling sedikit Rp. 200.000.000,00 (dua ratus juta rupiah) dan paling banyak Rp. 1.000.000.000,00 (satu milyar rupiah)”

Pasal 2 Ayat(1) UU Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi No 31 Tahun 1999

“Setiap orang yang dengan tujuan menguntungkan diri sendiri atau orang lain atau suatu korporasi, menyalahgunakan kewenangan, kesempatan atau sarana yang ada padanya karena jabatan atau kedudukan yang dapat merugikan keuangan negara atau perekonomian negara, dipidana dengan pidana penjara seumur hidup atau pidana penjara paling singkat 1 (satu) tahun dan paling lama 20 (dua puluh) tahun dan atau denda paling sedikit Rp. 50.000.000,00 (lima puluh juta rupiah) dan paling banyak Rp. 1.000.000.000,00 (satu milyar rupiah)’
Mengupas Perbedaan Unsur Pasal 2(1) dan 3 UU PTPK

Pasal 3 UU No 31 Tahu 1999 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Subjek Hukum Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Kedua Pasal, menempatkan secara formil subjek hukum adalah “setiap orang”. Berdasarkan ketentuan umum yang dimaksud setiap orang adalah orang perseorangan atau termasuk korporasi.

Oleh karena Pasal 2 (1) tidak memberikan pengecualian maka secara materiil yang dapat dijerat termasuk Penyelenggara Negara, swasta dan ASN.

Berbeda dengan Unsur “setiap orang” dalam Pasal 3, sudah diipersyaratkan yang menjadi subjek hukum adalah orang perseorangan yang mempunyai jabatan atau kedudukan tertentu, khususnya jabatan pada pemerintahan.

Contoh Subjek Hukum Tindak Pidana Korupsi

Mengenai Penerimaan Negara Bukan Pajak telah diatur dalam UU No 19 Tahun 2019. Didalam UU PNBP ini, telah diatur apa saja sektor penerimaan bukan pajak, bagaimana mengumpulkannya, dan kewajiban mensetorkannya. Pada pasal 48 Ayat 2B diatur tentang pemeriksaan adanya indikasi kerugian negara dan/atau indikasi tindak pidana.

Dalam kasus ini, seorang pejabat/bawahannya atau bersama-sama yang tidak melakukan penyetoran PNPB, adalah termasuk unsur setiap orang dalam Pasal 2 (1) atau Pasal 3 UU Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi. Sekalipun mereka ASN menurut pasal 2 , tidak melakukan penyetoran PNBP merupakan perbuatan melawan hukum, sedangkan menurut pasal 3 merupakan penyalhgunaan kewenangan.

PERBUATAN KORUPSI

Didalam Pasal 2(1) terdapat adanya unsur “Melawan hukum” dalam melakukan pengayaan dirinya atau orang lain. Unsur melawan hukum telah mengantarkan Pasal 2(1) memiliki cakupan yang luas bagi JPU dalam menyusun sifat melawan hukum suatu perbuatan dengan asas, teori dan yurisrudensi yang berkembang dalam Hukum Pidana.
Berbeda dengan pasal 3, uraian perbuatan tidak disebutkan melawan hukum tetapi melakukan penyalahgunaan kewenangan, menyalagunakan sarana, menyalahgunakan kesempatan yang melekat pada jabatan / kedudukannya dan tujuannya adalah mendapatkan keuntungan.

Pembuat UU membedakan antara tujuan menguntungkan diri sendiri/orang lain pada Pasal 3 dengan melakukan perbuatan memperkaya diri sendiri/orang lain. Sebab menguntungkan mempunyai arti lebih luas dari memperkaya. Bagi seorang pejabat yang koruptif, bisa saja ia tidak memperoleh barang mewah atau uang dalam persengkongkolan korupsi, tetapi niatnya mendapatkan keuntungan yang bersifat kesempatan dan peluang.

CONTOH MENGUNTUNGKAN DAN MEMPERKAYA

Seorang, penyidik tertarik pada salah satu barang bukti hasil tindak pidana korupsi, dengan memanfaatkan kewenangannya ia melakukan serangkain perbuatan agar 1 barang bukti tersebut dimasukan sebagai barang sita. Sekalipun barang bukti tersebut belum menjadi atasnamanya atau menjadi harta kekayaannya (Pasal 2(1)) tetapi perbuatannya sudah memenuhi unsur menguntungkan diri sendiri yang dimaksud pada Pasal 3.
UNSUR KEPENTINGAN UMUM/NEGARA

Kekhususan Tindak Pidana Korupsi adalah terdapat unsur “dapat merugikan keuangan negara atau perekonomian negara”. Kata dapat, secara formil memberi maksud pula bahwa tidaklah harus telah terjadi (potensi) kerugian keuangan maupun perekonomian Negara.

Tentang unsur ini, baik pasal 2 dan 3. JPU memiliki kewajiban untuk menunjukan bentuk rill bagaimana kekayaan negara dalam bentuk apapun, baik yang dipisahkan atau yang tidak dipisahkan, termasuk segala bagian kekayaan negara dan segala hak dan kewajiban yang telah dirugikan. Begitupun menyangkut Perekonomian negara bagaimana bentuk riil kerugiaanya.

https://langitbabel1.com/putusan-tipikor-dibawah-ancaman-pidana-minimum

John Ganesha Siahaan

Kelahiran Belinyu tertarik pada isue demokrasi, pembaharuan hukum dan pengawasan kebijakan publik. Aktif sebagai pekerja bantuan hukum dan Penggiat Ekonomi Kreatif pada Pengembangan Industti 4.O

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