Hermeneutika Dalam Pasal Hukum Pidana


Hermeneutika – Menurut Prof. Dr. Bernard Arief Sidharta,SH Guru Besar Fakultas Hukum Universitas Parahyangan, fungsi utama dari Hermeneutika dalam melakukan penalaran hukum adalah untuk menemukan makna objektif dari hukum positif. Ciri khas hermenutika dilakukan dengan 2 cara yakni tafsir harus diarahkan pada teks/konteks atau pendekatan tafsir reproduktif atau produktif. Contohnya :

Pasal 504 KUHP

  1. Barang siapa mengemis di muka umum, diancam karena melakukan pengemisan dengan pidana kurungan paling lama enam minggu;
  2. Pengemisan yang dilakukan oleh tiga orang atau lebih, yang berumur di atas enam belas tahun, diancam dengan pidana kurungan paling lama tiga bulan.

Dari teks pasal 504 KUHP, didapatkan norma primernya adalah :

Subjek Norma (Setiap Orang) → Operator Norma (Larangan) → Objek Norma (Mengemis) → Kondisi Norma (Dimuka Umum) → Norma Sanksi (Paling Lama Enam Minggu).

Ciri Khas Hermeneutika

Kemudian pada ayat (2) Pasal 504 KUHP terjadi penambahan kondisi norma dari ayat selain di muka umum adapula norma kondisi oleh 3 orang lebih , berumur diatas 16 Tahun serta perubahan norma sanksi menjadi 2x Lipat yakni 3 Bulan.

Metode hermeneutika diatas adalah penalaran hukum secara tekstual. Namun karena teks mengemis tidak didefinikan unsure perbuatannya seperti mengambil barang kepunyaan orang lain dalam pencurian atau menghilangkan nyawa orang lain dalam pembunuhan. Maka analis hermeneutika akan dipergunakan untuk menafsirkan konteks mengemis sebagai perilaku meminta-minta didepan umum.

Demikian metode hermeneutika biasa diterapkan dalam menafsirkan hukum pidana oleh sarjana hukum. Dimulai dari pendekatan tekstual (rechmatigheid) atasnama kepastian hukum secara gramatikal kemudian pendekatan konteks (doelmatigheid) atasnama keadilan dan kemanfaatan hukum.

John Ganesha Siahaan

Kelahiran Belinyu tertarik pada isue demokrasi, pembaharuan hukum dan pengawasan kebijakan publik. Aktif sebagai pekerja bantuan hukum dan Penggiat Ekonomi Kreatif pada Pengembangan Industti 4.O

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